What is Evaluation in education / Types of Evaluation PDF Download

Evaluation in education is a very important topic in B.Ed 1st year and in 2nd year also. Every student who is doing B.Ed should understand the concept of evaluation and Assessment. In this article we will discuss about the Evaluation and its types.

What is Evaluation in Education

Evaluation is a systematic process of determining to what extent instructional objectives has been achieved.

Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting in­formation to determine the extent to which pupil’s have achieved instructional objectives.

Evaluation is a broader term which includes academic and non academic achievements of pupil.

Characteristics of Evaluation

¢Continuous process:-Evaluation is a continuous process. It goes hand in hand with teaching learning process.

¢Evaluation is comprehensive, it includes everything.

¢Evaluation is a cooperative process. It involves students, teachers, parents and peer groups.

¢Evaluation includes quantitative, qualitative and value description.

¢Evaluation is remedial in nature because the process of evaluation helps the learner to improve at every step.

¢Evaluation is not confined to the classroom only. It also takes into consideration what happens outside the classroom.

¢It gives more importance to learning as compared to teaching.

¢Evaluation serves as the guide to the students as well as teachers.

¢Evaluation is very systematic and scientific.

Principle of Evaluation

¢Principle of continuity: Evaluation is a continuous process of assessment of a child.

¢Principle of comprehensiveness: Knowledge of values can be tested through oral or written tests in the form of objective type of questions or short answer questions.

¢Principle of completeness: Through tests and exams we learn about the academic level of students. But through evaluation the complete assessment of the personality of a student can be taken.

¢Child centered: Evaluation is not only curriculum  centered but the overall behavior of the child is given much importance.

¢Principle of objectives: Evaluation is based on the principles of objectives. It tries to know how different objectives of personality are being achieved.

¢Principle of quality: In this with quantity, the quality of the learning gained by the pupil is also evaluated.

¢Principle of learning experiences: It includes the lasting experience gained by the students from his teacher and surroundings.

¢Principle of Application : A child should know the application of all the aspects learned by him.

¢Principle of Totality : Overall behaviour of the student is evaluated along with the academics.

Types of Evaluation

Formative Evaluation

Summative Evaluation

Prognostic Evaluation

Diagnostic Evaluation

Norm Referenced Evaluation

Criterion Referenced Evaluation

Quantitative Evaluation

Qualitative Evaluation

Formative evaluation

This type of evaluation is conducted during the process of teaching. Its purpose is to provide continuous feedback to the student and teacher.

This helps in making changes in the instruction process if requires. It takes into account smaller and independent units of the curriculum and in the end students are evaluated through tests.

It is evaluating the students that how much they have grasped and where they need to work more. A teacher can evaluate their students while teaching a lesson or a topic or after the completion of the topic to get an idea that – is their any need to make changes in teaching methodology.

It is very useful to make changes or make timely corrections in the students and teaching methodology.

Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation is conducted at the end of academic year. It evaluates the achievements of objectives and changes in the overall personality of a student at the end of the session.

Summative evaluations takes into consideration a broad aspect of learning. It takes into account formative evaluation grades and takes the test of students after completion of course to give the final grades and feedback to the students.

Grading is done on the basis of Summative Evaluation

Prognostic Evaluation

Prognostic assessments act as a means of estimation and prediction of the future career.

A prognostic assessment expands the findings of an assessment with analysis of abilities and potentials with a further dimension: the future development of the concerned person, as well as the necessary conditions, timeframe and limits.

Diagnostic evaluation

As the word describe diagnosis to determine the cause of the problem. In this evaluation a teacher try to diagnose every student on different parameters to get an idea about the caliber of students.

A diagnostic evaluation is a form of pre-evaluation where teachers can evaluate students’ strengths, weaknesses, knowledge and skills before the beginning of teaching learning process

It needs specially prepared diagnostic tests and many other observational techniques ¢It is helpful in designing the course and curriculum as per the capabilities of learner

Norm Referenced Evaluation

This is assessment that is based on comparing the relative performances of students, either by comparing the performances of individual students within the group being tested, or by comparing their performance with that of others of similar age, experience and background

It determines the position of students among the group

Criterion Reference Evaluation

Criterion Reference Evaluation describes an individual’s performance  in comparison to a fixed performance standard.

It describes the accuracy of the performance of a student, i.e, how well the individual performs in respect to a specific standard.

In other words it is like judging the performance of a particular student against a prefixed standard.

Quantitative Evaluation and its tools

Quantitative evaluations are using scientific tools and measurements. The results can be measured or counted.

Techniques or tools used for Quantitative Evaluation



Performance test

Qualitative Evaluation

More subjective than qualitative evaluation, qualitative observations are defined in science as any observation made using the five senses

It involves value judgment

Techniques or tools used in Qualitative Evaluation

Cumulative Records

Such records are made by the school to show all round development of students individually

Anecdotal records

These records maintain the description of significant events or works of students


This is the most common technique of qualitative assessment of students. This is the only technique for the evaluation of classroom interaction

Check list

Checklists states specific criteria and allow teachers and students to gather information and to make judgements about what students know and can do in relation to the outcomes. They offer systematic ways of collecting data about specific behaviours, knowledge and skills.

Difference between assessment and evaluation


Improves learning quality     


Provides feedback                   


Ongoing process.              


Judges learning level


Shows shortfalls


Provide closure

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