Reading and reflecting on texts – B.Ed 1st year Practical file

Reading and reflecting on texts is one of the practical file in B.Ed 1st year syllabus. In this article we have tried to cover all the important points of Reading and reflecting on texts. You can write these pints in your practical file and elaborate them a bit. Also I have made separate article and videos on each practical file and viva , you can check them Here

Below are the main points of practical file “Reading and reflecting on texts”

What is Language

language is a structured system of communication.

Words and the methods of combining them for expression of thoughts.

A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region for talking or writing

Language components

Phonology is defined as the study of sound patterns and their meanings

Some linguists include phonetics, the study of the production and description of speech sounds, within the study of phonology.

Morphology is the study of words and other meaningful units of language like suffixes and prefixes. Like “dog” and “dogs” or “walk” and “walking,” 

Syntax Syntax is the study of sentences and phrases, or how people put words into the right order so that they can communicate meaningfully.

Functions of Language

Expressive Function

     Every person has some feelings, emotions, ideas and he needs to express those feelings. By using an language the individual can express his views.

Informative Function

     Language helps in giving information. If we want to pass information to another person or if a teacher wants to teach in his class then the language plays an important role

Directive Function

     Language helps in giving directions to others

Importance of Language

  • A Link Language

English is a link language that is it helps us to connect with other people. If a person goes to some other state or foreign country where he cannot communicate in his mother tongue, there he can easily connect with other people in English.

  • International Importance

  English is said to be a universal language. English is mostly understandable in most of the countries.

  • Educational Importance

   Without English higher education in science, medicine, engineering etc can not be perceived.

  • Cultural Importance

   English helps to bring people of diverse cultures closer to each other.

  • English at administrative level

   English is used at all administrative levels in state as well as centre.

  • English in our social life

   English is also playing a important role in the social life.

  • English Opens New Career Opportunities

   English can help you pursue and obtain more career opportunities

  • English is the top language of the Internet

    English is the most-used language online, with nearly 1 billion users typing and chatting in the language.


Reading is the process of looking at a series of written symbols and getting meaning from them. When we read, we use our eyes to receive written symbols (letters, punctuation marks and spaces) and we use our brain to convert them into words, sentences and paragraphs that communicate something to us.

Reading Skill

Reading skills is the ability of an individual to read, comprehend and interpret written or printed symbols.

Reading consists of three elements

Symbol : Symbol are the letters which makes words and sentences.

Sound : Every Symbol has some particular sound.

Sense : Symbol and sound makes some sense which is the ultimate aim of language.

Aims of teaching reading

To enable the students to read with full understanding.

To help them have good reading practice.

To enable them to understand the meanings of each word contained in a sentence.

To develop interest of the students in literature.

To read with correct pronunciation in isolation and also in the context of a sentence.

To develop the appreciating ability of the students.

To enable them to interpret sentences of paragraph.

Types of Reading

Extensive Reading:  This means reading for pleasure and relaxation. A reader can take any topic of interest and get indulged in self-appeasement. The purpose is to enjoy. 

Intensive Reading:  As the term, itself states, Intensive is ‘in depth. This type of reading is careful reading with the utmost concern for the understanding of the text in hand. 

Intensive reading can also be of

Scanning is considered as a helping hand in reading texts that are heavy and need to be searched upon.

Skimming: Creating a Condensed Understanding of the given text. This is also rapid reading which focuses on the text Title, Headings, Topical Sentences, Tables and Charts, Figures and Diagrams etc.

Stages of teaching reading

Preparatory Reading

Letter Recognition

Productive reading

Enhancement stage

Steps of teaching reading comprehension

Pre reading activity helps students think about what they  know about a topic and predict what they will read or hear.

While-Reading Activities are defined  as activities  that  help students to focus on aspects of the text and to understand it better.

Post-reading activities help students understand texts further, through critically analyzing what they have read

Suggestions for Reading skills

Have them read aloud

Provide books at the right level

Reread to build fluency

Practicing phonics skills.

Look for easy-to-read books or magazines

Talk about what they’re reading

Ask questions before, during, and after a session to encourage reading comprehension


Writing is the process of using symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation and spaces) to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form.

Writing Skills

Writing skills are an important part of communication. 

Good writing skills allow you to communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far larger audience.

Stages of teaching writing skill

Training to penmanship

Letter writing

Mature style of writing

Suggestions to improve handwriting

Correct habits of writing should be cultivated in the students at the early stage.

Students should sit in the proper posture while writing.

The student should be asked to use calligraphy note books. They can practice in writing by tracing.

Students should use four lined exercise books for doing written work.

The teacher should pay individual attention.

Specimens of good handwriting should be displayed in the class.

Thank you so much for reading this article

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