Models of Curriculum is a topic in Knowledge and Curriculum subject of B.Ed 2nd year. I have already made post on Curriculum and Bases of Curriculum. In this topic we will discuss about all the “Models of Curriculum” which is their in the curriculum of B.Ed.
Models of Curriculum
- It is based on Specific objectives.
- Objectives should specify the desired learning outcomes.
- This model comprises four main steps
- Agreeing on broad aims which are analyzed into objectives,
- Constructing a curriculum to achieve these objectives,
- Refining the curriculum in practice by testing its capacity to achieve its objectives, and
- Communicating the curriculum to the teachers through the conceptual framework of the objectives.
In this model:
- Evaluation is done at each stage of the curriculum design.
- Content, materials and methodology are derived from the objectives.
The Process Model
- The Process Model Unlike the objectives model, this model does not consider objectives to be important. Using this model presupposes that:
- Content has its own value. Therefore, it should not be selected on the basis of the achievement of objectives.
- Content involves procedures, concepts and criteria that can be used to appraise the curriculum.
- Translating content into objectives may result in knowledge being distorted.
- Learning activities have their own value and can be measured in terms of their own standard. For this reason, learning activities can stand on their own.
In the process model:
- Content and methodology are derived from the goals. Each of them has outcomes that can be evaluated.
- The evaluation results from the outcome are fed into the goals, which will later influence the content and methodologies. Unlike the objectives model, there is no direct evaluation of the content and methodologies
- Tyler’s model for curriculum designing is based on the following questions:
- What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
- What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
- How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
- How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
This model is linear in nature, starting from objectives and ending with evaluation. In this model, evaluation is terminal. It is important to note that:
- Objectives form the basis for the selection and organization of learning experiences.
- Objectives form the basis for assessing the curriculum.
- Objectives are derived from the learner, contemporary life and subject specialist.
- To Tyler, evaluation is a process by which one matches the initial expectation with the outcomes.
- Wheeler’s model for curriculum design is an improvement upon Tyler’s model. ¢Instead of a linear model, Wheeler developed a cyclical model.
- Evaluation in Wheeler’s model is not terminal.
- Findings from the evaluation are fed back into the objectives and the goals, which influence other stages.
Wheeler contends that:
- Aims should be discussed as behaviors referring to the end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals. One can think of these ultimate goals as outcomes.
- Aims are formulated from the general to the specific in curriculum planning. This results in the formulation of objectives at both an enabling and a terminal level.
- Content is distinguished from the learning experiences which determine that content.
Most of the features in Kerr’s model resemble those in Wheeler’s and Tyler’s models. However, Kerr divided the domains into four areas
3. Evaluation, and
4. School learning experiences.
- A simplified version of Kerr’s model of curriculum design is shown below.
What you should note about the model is that:
The four domains are interrelated directly or indirectly, and
Objectives are derived from school learning experiences and knowledge.
In Kerr’s model, objectives are divided into three groups:
The model further indicates that knowledge should be
Evaluation in Kerr’s model is the collection of information for use in making decisions about the curriculum.
School learning experiences are influenced by societal opportunities, the school community, pupil and teacher, content, objectives.
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