Models of Curriculum / Knowledge and Curriculum/ Target B.Ed

Models of Curriculum is a topic in Knowledge and Curriculum subject of B.Ed 2nd year. I have already made post on Curriculum and Bases of Curriculum. In this topic we will discuss about all the “Models of Curriculum” which is their in the curriculum of B.Ed.

Read : Bases of Curriculum

Objective Model

The Objective Model of curriculum development is a systematic approach that revolves around the formulation and achievement of specific learning objectives. This model is characterized by its emphasis on clearly defined outcomes and a structured process. Let’s delve into the key features and stages of the Objective Model:

Key Features of the Objective Model:

  1. Based on Specific Objectives:
    • The foundation of the Objective Model lies in the identification of specific and measurable learning objectives. These objectives serve as the focal point for curriculum development.
  2. Clear Specification of Learning Outcomes:
    • Objectives in this model are expected to precisely specify the desired learning outcomes. This clarity ensures that educators and learners have a clear understanding of what is expected to be achieved.

Stages of the Objective Model:

1. Agreeing on Broad Aims and Analyzing into Objectives: The curriculum development process begins by establishing broad educational aims. These overarching goals are then analyzed and broken down into specific, measurable objectives. This initial stage sets the direction for the entire curriculum.

2. Constructing a Curriculum to Achieve Objectives: With the objectives in place, the next stage involves the construction of a curriculum that is specifically designed to achieve these objectives. This includes selecting appropriate content, learning materials, and instructional methods aligned with the defined objectives.

3. Refining the Curriculum through Testing: Evaluation is an integral part of the Objective Model, occurring at each stage of curriculum design. This continuous assessment ensures that the curriculum is refined based on its effectiveness in achieving the specified objectives. Testing the curriculum in practice allows for necessary adjustments.

4. Communicating the Curriculum to Teachers: The final stage involves communicating the designed curriculum to teachers. This is done through a conceptual framework that emphasizes the defined objectives. Teachers are provided with a clear understanding of the educational goals and the methods to achieve them.

Model Implementation:

  • Evaluation at Each Stage: Evaluation is not just an endpoint; it occurs iteratively throughout the curriculum development process. This ensures ongoing refinement and improvement.
  • Derivation of Content, Materials, and Methodology from Objectives: In the Objective Model, content, instructional materials, and teaching methodologies are directly derived from the specified objectives. This alignment ensures a focused and purposeful approach to education.

The Process Model

Key Characteristics of the Process Model:

  1. Focus on Learning Procedures: The central aspect of the Process Model is its emphasis on the various processes involved in learning. This includes teaching methods, interaction, and the overall experience of the learners.
  2. Student-Centered Approach: In this model, learners play an active role in the learning process. Teachers act as facilitators, guiding students through activities and experiences that promote understanding and critical thinking.
  3. Holistic Learning: The Process Model recognizes that learning is a holistic experience. It goes beyond the mere acquisition of knowledge and encourages the development of skills, attitudes, and values through engaging activities.
  4. Continuous Assessment: Assessment in the Process Model is continuous and integrated into the learning activities. It involves ongoing feedback and evaluation to track students’ progress and adjust the teaching process accordingly.
  5. Adaptability and Flexibility: This model allows for adaptability and flexibility in both teaching strategies and content. Teachers can respond to the evolving needs of students and make adjustments to optimize the learning experience.

Implementation of the Process Model:

  1. Identifying Learning Activities: Educators begin by identifying a range of learning activities that align with educational goals. These activities can include discussions, projects, experiments, and other hands-on experiences.
  2. Facilitating Active Participation: Teachers act as facilitators, guiding students through the learning activities. The focus is on active participation, encouraging students to explore, question, and engage in the learning process.
  3. Integration of Assessment: Assessment is seamlessly integrated into the learning activities. This involves ongoing evaluation, feedback, and reflection, ensuring that assessment is not a separate entity but an integral part of the learning journey.
  4. Reflection and Adjustment: Both teachers and students engage in reflection. Educators assess the effectiveness of the learning activities, while students reflect on their own understanding and progress. Adjustments are made based on this feedback.

In the process model:

  • Content and methodology are derived from the goals. Each of them has outcomes that can be evaluated.
  • The evaluation results from the outcome are fed into the goals, which will later influence the content and methodologies. Unlike the objectives model, there is no direct evaluation of the content and methodologies

Tyler’s Model

The Tyler model of curriculum development, often referred to as the objectives model, was conceptualized by Ralph Tyler in 1949. This systematic and linear approach has been influential in shaping curriculum development methodologies. The model centers around four essential questions, providing a structured framework for educators to design, implement, and evaluate curricula:

  • Tyler’s model for curriculum designing is based on the following questions:
  • What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
  • What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
  • How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
  • How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

The Four Stages of the Tyler Model:

  1. Defining Objectives: At the onset, educators articulate specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound educational objectives. These objectives serve as the foundation for the entire curriculum development process.
  2. Selecting Content: Following the establishment of objectives, educators identify relevant content and learning experiences that align with the defined goals. This stage ensures that the curriculum is meaningful and suitable for the intended audience.
  3. Organizing Content: The third stage involves structuring the content and learning experiences in a logical sequence. This may include developing a scope and sequence, crafting lesson plans, and designing assessments to enhance the overall learning experience.
  4. Evaluating Outcomes: The concluding stage revolves around evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum in achieving its objectives. This comprehensive assessment includes evaluating student learning, gauging the efficacy of teaching strategies, and making any necessary adjustments to improve the curriculum.

This model is linear in nature, starting from objectives and ending with evaluation. In this model, evaluation is terminal. It is important to note that:

  • Objectives form the basis for the selection and organization of learning experiences.
  • Objectives form the basis for assessing the curriculum.
  • Objectives are derived from the learner, contemporary life and subject specialist.
  •  To Tyler, evaluation is a process by which one matches the initial expectation with the outcomes.

Wheeler’s Model

Wheeler’s curriculum planning model, developed in 1967, offers a comprehensive and cyclic approach to designing educational experiences. This model builds upon the foundational work of Ralph Tyler, addressing key aspects of curriculum development within the context of external motivations imposed on schools and teachers, particularly applicable to the Nigerian situation.

  • Wheeler’s model for curriculum design is an improvement upon Tyler’s model. ¢Instead of a linear model, Wheeler developed a cyclical model.
  • Evaluation in Wheeler’s model is not terminal.
  • Findings from the evaluation are fed back into the objectives and the goals, which influence other stages.

Wheeler’s Model Stages

Stage 1: Formulation of Educational Aims, Goals, and Objectives

The initial stage in Wheeler’s model involves the thoughtful formulation of educational aims, goals, and objectives. This step is crucial in determining the role of education in individuals’ lives and society at large. It sets the overarching direction for the curriculum and provides a framework for subsequent stages.

Stage 2: Selection of Learning Experiences

The second stage focuses on the selection of learning experiences. These experiences encompass activities, topics, subject matter, and materials presented to learners. Wheeler emphasizes that only those experiences aligned with intended learning outcomes should be chosen. This stage ensures a purposeful and targeted approach to education.

Stage 3: Selection and Integration of Content

The third stage delves into the selection and integration of content, providing a detailed scope of the learning experiences. This stage aims to prevent teachers from deviating from the intended content, ensuring that the curriculum stays aligned with the formulated objectives.

Stage 4: Organization of Selected Learning Experiences

In this stage, the emphasis is on organizing the selected learning experiences for presentation to meet the diverse needs of learners. Considerations include the use of appropriate instructional materials and techniques, aligning with the formulated objectives. The organization ensures a coherent and effective delivery of the curriculum.

Stage 5: Evaluation

The final stage of Wheeler’s model is evaluation, focusing on assessing the extent to which the set objectives have been achieved. This stage employs various assessment methods to measure the effectiveness of the curriculum in facilitating learning. Evaluation feedback is crucial for refining and improving the curriculum in subsequent cycles.

Wheeler contends that:

  • Aims should be discussed as behaviors referring to the end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals. One can think of these ultimate goals as outcomes.
  • Aims are formulated from the general to the specific in curriculum planning. This results in the formulation of objectives at both an enabling and a terminal level.
  • Content is distinguished from the learning experiences which determine that content.

Kerr’s Model

Kerr’s curriculum model, developed with a focus on clear domains and their interrelationships, provides a comprehensive framework for designing effective educational experiences. The model categorizes these domains into four distinct areas: Objectives, Knowledge, Evaluation, and School Learning Experiences. Let’s delve into the key features and components of Kerr’s model:

Kerr’s Curriculum Model Domains:

1. Objectives:

In Kerr’s model, objectives are divided into three groups:

  • Affective: Concerned with emotions, attitudes, and values.
  • Cognitive: Focuses on intellectual development, knowledge acquisition, and critical thinking.
  • Psychomotor: Pertains to physical skills and coordination.

Derivation from School Learning Experiences and Knowledge:

Objectives are intricately connected to both school learning experiences and knowledge. They serve as a bridge between the planned experiences and the organized knowledge within the curriculum.

2. Knowledge:

  • Organized: Kerr emphasizes the importance of organizing knowledge within the curriculum. This involves structuring information in a coherent and logical manner to facilitate effective learning.
  • Integrated: Integration involves connecting different pieces of knowledge, creating meaningful relationships between concepts, and fostering a holistic understanding of the subject matter.
  • Sequenced: Kerr’s model advocates for a logical sequencing of knowledge. This ensures a progressive and developmental approach, building on foundational concepts before introducing more complex ones.
  • Reinforced: Reinforcement of knowledge involves revisiting and reinforcing key concepts to enhance retention and understanding over time.

3. Evaluation:

  • Information Collection for Decision-Making:
    • In Kerr’s model, evaluation is seen as the systematic collection of information. The purpose is to make informed decisions about the curriculum. This emphasizes the importance of ongoing assessment to improve and adapt the curriculum as needed.

4. School Learning Experiences:

  • Influenced by Various Factors:
    • Kerr acknowledges that school learning experiences are influenced by multiple factors:
      • Societal Opportunities
      • School Community
      • Pupil and Teacher Dynamics
      • Content and Objectives
  • A simplified version of Kerr’s model of curriculum design is shown below.

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