Childhood and Growing up MCQ’s

Childhood and Growing up Unit 3 Learning Theories MCQ’s

In this article I have included all the concepts of B.Ed 1st year subject Childhood and Growing up unit 3. Also I have tried to include all the important Childhood and Growing up MCQ’s of unit 3.


  • Edward Lee Thorndike was an American psychologist
  • Thorndike has expounded his theory of trial and error on the basis of experimental studies on rats, cats, monkeys, chicken, fishes etc.
  • His experiment on cats were widely acknowledged. 
  • He devised a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box to empirically test the laws of learning. 


  • Primary Laws
  • Law of Readiness 
  • Law of Exercise 
  • Law of Effect 


  • Ivan D Pavlov 1849-1936 is the Russian Physiologist.
  • This theory is also known as Learning by conditioning and conditioned response theory.
  • Pavlov conducted his experiment on a dog 
  • Four factors of classical conditioning 
  • The Natural unconditioned stimulus 
  • The unconditioned response 
  • The conditioned stimulus 
  • The conditioned response 


  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18,1990) was an American psychologist 
  • Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment 
  • Skinner created his operant conditioning chamber or we also call it Skinner box and kept a hungry rat in it. 
  • Rat accidentally presses a liver by which food is released. 


  • Wolfgang Kohler, psychologist and philosopher, was one of the founders of the gestalt school of psychology.
  • On the basis of his experiments on apes he gave the cognitive theories of learning, which he called insight learning. 
  • Kohler observed that an organism perceives the situation in totality and finds a solution to the problem all of a sudden 
  • Kohler in his 1st experiment kept a chimpanzee (named Sultan) hungry for some time, and then locked him in a large cage. 


  • Jerome Seymour Bruner was an American psychologist
  • According to Bruner the child’s cognitive structures mature with age
  • Bruner concentrates more on how knowledge is represented and organized as the child develops. 
  • Bruner proposed three modes of representation:
  • Enactive representation (Action based)
  • Iconic representation (Image based) 
  • Symbolic representation (Language based) 

             Childhood and Growing up MCQ’s

1. Children learn effectively when

(1) the teacher fully controls everything that happens in the class including the children.

(2) they memorize facts given in the textbook.

(3) they copy answers written by the teacher on the blackboard.

(4) they actively participate in different activities and tasks.

A learning style is:

(1) the type of material that an individual prefers to learn.

(2) a strategy used by an individual to integrate new knowledge with that which has already been acquired.

(3) a filter mechanism that inhibits the learning of certain material.

(4)none of the above.

A teacher can enhance effective learning in her elementary classroom by

(1) offering rewards for small steps in learning

(2) drill and practice

(3) encouraging competition amongst her students

(4) connecting the content to the lives of the students

Which of the following is NOT a key process through which meaningful learning occurs ?

(1) Memorization and recall 

(2) Repetition and practice

(3) Instruction and direction

(4) Exploration and interaction

According to the behaviorist school, ________ plays no role in learning

(1) experience

(2) nurture

(3) heredity

(4) punishment

Thorndike developed the

(1) law of effort

(2) law of energy

(3) law of effusion

(4) law of effect

Individual learns from his own mistakes” This statement is based on which learning theory ?

(1) Instrumental conditioning

(2) Insight

(3) Trial & Error

(4) Classical conditioning

What did Thorndike (1911) use to study learning?

(1) Radial mazes

(2) Classical conditioning

(3) Puzzle boxes

(4) All of these

Classical conditioning is associated with the work of:

(1) Skinner

(2) Pavlov

(3) Freud

(4) Thorndike

In classical conditioning, US stands for: 

(1) unintentional stimulus

(2) unconditioned stimulus

(3) unconnected stimulus

(4) none of the above

In classical conditioning, UR and CR are:

(1) opposite behaviours

(2) the same behaviour

(3) the result of extinction

(4) the same stimulus

Which of the following is a concept associated with classical conditioning?

(1) The unconditioned stimulus.

(2)The unconditioned response.

(3) The conditioned response.

(4) All of the above.

Which of these is an unconditioned response?

(1) Blink

(2) Sweating

(3) Salivation

(4) All of these

Which of these is an unconditioned stimulus?

(1) Pain

(2) Food

(3) Shock

(4) All of these

People who have a lot of dental problems often come to dislike even the smell of their dentist’s office. The smell represents a(n):

(1) US

(2) UR

(3) CS

(4) CR

You are online one evening when an advert appears showing your favorite movie star wearing a new brand of sunglasses. The advertiser hopes that your positive feelings toward the movie star will make you want the sunglasses. In this situation, the sunglasses would be the

(1) US

(2) UR

(3) CS

(4) CR

Which theory of learning best explains why you might feel frightened sitting in the dentist´s chair even before you have felt any pain?

(1) Operant conditioning

(2) Classical conditioning

(3) Introspection

(4) Instrumental learning

The new association between a stimulus and response formed in classical conditioning is called the

(1) Conditioned stimulus

(2) Unconditioned stimulus

(3) Conditioned response

(4) Unconditioned response

A researcher trains a dog to salivate to the sound of a bell. Then he turns the lights on just before he sounds the bell. If he continues to do this until the dog starts to salivate as soon as the lights go on, he has demonstrated:

(1) latent learning

(2) insight

(3) second-order conditioning

(4) extinction

What term is given to the finding that a response is reduced if it is no longer strengthened?

(1) Unconditioned response

(2) Extinction

(3) Spontaneous recovery

(4)Conditioned response Revaluation

What term is applied to the random reappearance of a behavior after extinction?

(1) Operant conditioning

(2) Spontaneous recovery

(3) Reconditioning

(4) Random acquisition

Skinner (1938) drew which distinction?

(1) Normal and abnormal conditioning

(2) Cognition and emotion

(3) Rats and humans

(4) Operant and respondent behavior

In operant conditioning an organism:

(1) comes to pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned response.

(2) receives reinforcement before exhibiting the desired behavior as an inducement to behave in that way.

(3) receives reinforcement after behaving in the desired way.

(4) only learns to avoid punishment.

According to Skinnerian Operant conditioning theory, a negative reinforcement is:

(1) Nothing but punishment

(2) A biofeedback

(3) A withdrawing or removal of a positive reinforcement

(4) An instinctive drift

If we reinforce the desired response every time it occurs we are using:

(1) continuous reinforcement

(2) incremental reinforcement

(3) intermittent reinforcement

(4) contingent reinforcement

Taking away a child’s toys after she has hit her brother (to stop her hitting him again!) is an example of:

(1) positive punishment

(2) negative punishment

(3) vindictive conditioning

(4) observational learning

Giving a student extra homework after they misbehave in class is an example of:

(1) positive punishment

(2) negative punishment

(3) positive reinforcement

(4) negative reinforcement

Positive reinforcement ________ the likelihood of a behaviour, and negative reinforcement ________ the likelihood of a behavior.

(1) increases, increases

(2) decreases, decreases

(3) increases, decreases 

(4) decreases, increases  

Positive punishment ________ behaviour, and negative punishment ________ behavior.

(1) strengthens, strengthens

(2) weakens, weakens

(3) strengthens, weakens

(4) weakens, strengthens

Taking away a person’s car after they have been caught speeding would be an example of:

(1) positive punishment

(2) negative punishment

(3) positive reinforcement

(4) negative reinforcement

The continuous reinforcement schedule is generally used

(1) In the last part of training

(2) In early stages of training

(3) In the middle period of training

(4) In both last and first part of training

What is negative reinforcement?

(1)Punishment which reinforces behavior

(2)Any consequence where something pleasurable is added Punishment which discourages behavior

(3) Any consequence where something pleasant is taken away

(4)Any consequence where something unpleasant is taken away 

What is positive reinforcement?

(1) Any consequence where something pleasant is taken away

(2) Any consequence where something unpleasant is taken away

(3) Any consequence where something pleasurable is added

(4) A classical conditioning technique

Which of the following are not true for operant conditioning?

(1) It is based on consequences of actions

(2) It is based on voluntary behavior

(3) It is based on innate behaviors

(4) It does not use unconditioned responses

Which category does the age group 1-6 belong to?

(1) Iconic

(2) Symbolic

(3) Tactile

(4) enactive

Which category is language-based?

(1) Iconic

(2) Symbolic

(3) Visual

(4) enactive

Which age group is not included in the constructivist theory?

(1) 7 and up

(2) 1-6

(3) 13-18

(4) 0-1

In a constructivist frame, learning is

(1) active and social in its character.

(2) passive and individualistic.

(3) the process of acquisition of knowledge.

(4) a change in behavior as a result of experience 

Which of the following pairs is correct?

(1) Gestalt Theory: Kurt Lewin

(2) Reinforcement Theory: Thorndike

(3) Gestalt Theory: Kohler

(4) Reinforcement Theory: Kurt Lewin

Who is credited with popularizing the concept of insight learning?

(1) Wolfgang Kohler

(2) Wolfgang Mozart

(3) Wolfgang Schneider

(4) Wolfgang Freud

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