b.ed 1st year notes

What are Composite Regional Centers and its Objective

Composite Regional Centers Composite Regional Centers for persons with disabilities is set under the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India. There are National Institutes and other apex bodies in each area of disability in different part of India under same Ministry. To overcome the lack of adequate facilities for rehabilitation of person …

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Individual Differences – Types & Characteristics

Individual Differences ¢Individual differences are variations in mental or physical characteristics among individuals which differentiate them from one another. ¢No two persons are alike. There are billions of people in the world still each one is different from each other. ¢All the individuals differ from each other in many aspects. ¢Children born from the same …

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Erikson theory of Psychosocial Development

Who was Erik Erikson ¢Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) was a German American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.  ¢Despite lacking a bachelor’s degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard, University of California, Berkeley. ¢Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from …

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Thorndike’s trial and error theory B.Ed notes | Thorndike Experiment – Educational implications, Limitations

Thorndike’s trial and error theory Behaviorism ¢Behaviorism is the study to understand the behavior of humans and other animals. ¢The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors. ¢It states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment and not by heredity. Edward Lee Thorndike ¢Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, …

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Pavlov theory of classical conditioning | Pavlov’s experiment Download PDF

Pavlov theory of classical conditioning Ivan D Pavlov ¢Ivan D Pavlov 1849-1936 is the Russian Physiologist. ¢He propounded the classical conditioning theory in 1903. ¢This theory is also known as Learning by conditioning and conditioned response theory. ¢The main interest of Pavlov was in the study of Gastric secretion of dogs. ¢He won the noble …

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Curriculum as a process – Knowledge and Curriculum

¢The curriculum process is a systematic and organized way in which what will be taught , who will be taught and how it will be taught. Each component affects and interacts with other components. Also Read : Curriculum as a Product ¢The essential considerations for curriculum development are: ¢Issue/ Problem/ need is identified ¢Characteristics and …

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