Individual Differences – Types & Characteristics

Individual Differences

¢Individual differences are variations in mental or physical characteristics among individuals which differentiate them from one another.

¢No two persons are alike. There are billions of people in the world still each one is different from each other.

¢All the individuals differ from each other in many aspects.

¢Children born from the same parents and even the twins are not alike.

Types of Individual Differences

¢Inter Individual differences

    It includes those differences found in personality of two or more than two persons. E.g. differences in the weight, height, behavior of a person.

¢Intra Individual differences

    These differences found in the personality of any individual. e.g. a physically healthy person and mentally unsound person

Individual differences Areas

¢Physical Area

¢It is divided into two sub parts

¢Physical differences: A person may be different from another in weight, height, complexion, features, colour eyes, hair. Some person has physical defect which makes them different from another

¢Motor abilities ¢It has been seen that people of the same age has different speed of working.

Mental Area

¢It is divided into four areas

¢Intelligence differences: People has differences according the intelligence level. Intelligence of person is measured with the help of intelligence tests or IQ test.

¢Achievement differences: It is believed that a person’s achievement depends on their intelligence. But for the achievement inspite of intelligence there are other factors also responsible for achievement such as interest in the subject, study habits, conditions of the study etc. Sometimes person has higher IQ but lower educational quotient EQ.

¢Aptitude differences: Inborn inclination towards any task has been named as an aptitude. e.g some have music aptitude, artistic aptitude.

¢Special abilities differences: Special ability is the mixture of both aptitude and physical ability. On the basis of these a person sets a record in some particular field.

Emotional Area

¢It is further divided into three areas

¢Emotional differences: In early childhood emotions of the children are almost similar but as they grow emotions start differentiating

¢Attitude differences: Attitude means tendency to respond made for some object, person or idea.

¢Interest differences: Interest can be inborn and acquired. Some children has interest in games while some has interest in science or literature.

¢Social and cultural differences: Person behavior is influenced by social feelings and their cultural traits.

¢Self Concept differences: People make different concept about themselves is known as self concept. Like some consider themselves as of mature, self esteem while some think they are not capable.

Causes of individual differences

¢Heredity: A person acquires characteristics from his parents.

¢Environment: It means all those physical, social, natural and educational conditions in which a child takes birth and is brought up or grows.

¢Maturity: With increase in age person acquires maturity in different age levels which affect the behavior of the person.

¢Age: As age increase there is physical and mental changes in the person which affect there personality differently.

¢Creativity: Creativity also makes differences as the person has different way or creative ideas to do a task.

¢Caste, Race, Culture and Nation ¢Poverty ¢School Environment

Characteristics of Individual Differences

¢The individuals are never equal

¢Inclusion of Measurable traits: Individual differences include only measurable traits of the personality.

¢Measurable Personality traits affect each other eg educational achievement of the children having high intelligence is often found high.

¢Traits inclined towards mean or average: Traits of a group of same age people is found to be inclined towards average.

¢Basis of development: Individual differences function as a basis for various types of development.

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