Here is the list of most important articles of Indian Constitution. It is important in all competitive exams. Also it an important topic in Contemporary India and Education
¢ The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India
¢ This ‘Right to Equality’ applies to all the foreigners and Indians.
¢ Equal treatment for all persons before the court
¢ The similar application of the same laws to all persons who are similarly situated.
¢ Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
¢ The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them
¢ No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to
(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment; or
(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public
Article 21 reads as:
“No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to a procedure established by law.” ¢Article 21 secures two rights:
1) Right to life, and ¢includes right to live with human dignity, right to livelihood, right to health, right to pollution free air, etc.
2) Right to personal liberty. ¢those rights and privileges that have long been recognized as being essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.
¢ Right to Education (Article 21A)
¢ The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of 6 to 14 years
¢ In 86th constitutional amendment in December 2002
¢ Article 21 A is inserted in Fundamental rights
¢ The Government of India passed the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.
¢ It came into force from April 2010
¢ Before enacting article 21A, as Constitution Amendment( 86 ) Act, 2002, article 45 was there to provide provision for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
¢ But after 86th Constitution Amendment act article 21A substituted article 45. Again the article 45 is changed and substituted by new article 45 which states “the State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years”.
¢ So now article 45 seeks education and early childhood care for children upto 6 years or till reaching 6 years of age
Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions
(1) No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds
(2) Nothing in clause ( 1 ) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution
(3) No person attending any educational institution recognized by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto Cultural and Educational Rights.
¢Protection of interests of minorities
1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same
2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them
Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions in the country.
(1) All minorities (religion or language) shall have the right to administer and establish educational institutions of their choice in the country.
(2) The State shall not discriminate against any educational institution managed by a minority in granting aid.
Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances
Every person shall be entitled to submit a representation for the redress of any grievance to any officer or authority of the Union or a State in any of the languages used in the Union or in the State, as the case may be.
Article 350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at the primary stage – It shall be the endeavor of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.
Article 350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities – There shall be a Special Officer for linguistic minorities to be appointed by the President.
It shall be the duty of the Special officer to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under this Constitution and report to the President upon those matters at such intervals as the President may direct, and the president shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament and sent to the Government of the States concerned.
Directive for development of the Hindi language
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
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