Achievement Tests – Assessment for Learning

Achievement tests are used by teachers to measure or test the achievements and success achieved in any particular field by a student. Whatever the student learns in school is called his achievement and examinations conducted to test that achievement are called achievement tests.

Classification of Achievement tests

Achievement tests can be prepared on the basis of method like:

(i) Standardized Test

Any test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers, and graded in the same manner for everyone, is a standardized test.

(ii) Teacher Made Test

Principle of Achievement tests

  • Achievement tests should measure clearly the objectives that have been formulated ¢In order to construct a good test, every teacher should be able to formulate clear goals especially specific instructional objectives
  • Achievement test should be according to the level of students
  • Achievement test should include the types of tests items that are most appropriate for measuring the desired learning outcomes.
  • Achievement test should be made as reliable as possible
  • Achievement tests should improve student learning.

Construction of Achievement Test

1)    Planning of test

2)    Preparation of a design for the test

3)    Preparation of the blue print

4)    Preparing Preliminary draft

5)    Item analysis

       Editing the draft

       Try Out

6)    Preparing the final draft

7)    Establishment of Standardization

Planning of test

  • Planning of a test is a first and very important step in the construction of an achievement test.
  • For proper planning below points kept in mind
  • Subject,
  • Level of students,
  • Content
  • Objective
  • Maximum time and Maximum marks

Preparation of a design for the test

In this context, following decisions were taken by the investigator such as:

  • Weightage to the objectives of test
  • Weightage to Content
  • Weightage to the type of questions
  • Allotment of time and marking process

Weightage to the objectives of test


Weightage to Content

S.NoTopicsNo. Of  QuesScore%

Weightage to the type of Ques

S.NoTypes of ItemsNumber of QuesMarks%
1Long Answer Type22438%
2Short Answer Type82642%
3Objective Type1010 20%

Allotment of Time

¢How much time students will take to complete the test is estimated by this step. While allotment of time a teacher must consider ¢Number of question Type and difficulty level

S.NoTypes of QuesNo. of  QuesTime
1.Objective Type1010 Min
2Short Answer Type820 Min
3.Long Answer Type220 Min
Total2050 Min

Blue print of achievement test

Type of QL        S      OL        S        O           L         S    O       L      S      O        L       S       O L       S     O
Topic A                 1 (1)           2(1)        8(1)                      1(1)                
Topic B                          2(2)                                                 4(2)       4(2)8(1)        2(1)
Topic C8(1) 2(1)               4(2)                1(1)               3(3)
L(Long Q)S(Short Q)O(Objective Q

Preliminary draft

  • Writing the Questions
  • The paper setter write items according to the blue print.
  • Make the instructions for each type of question simple and brief.
  • It should also checked whether all the questions included can be answered within the time allotted.
  • It is advisable to arrange the questions in the order of their difficulty level.

Editing the Draft

Then the item should be edited and reviewed by experts to check the errors in language and defect in words and the level of questions

     TRY OUT

    After drafting it is time to try out the question paper in actual conditions.

  • Proper sitting arrangements.
  • Proper light and ventilation and adequate space for invigilation
  • Student are able to complete the test in time allotted
  • Steps should be taken to reduce the anxiety of the students
  • The answer sheets were scored with the help of scoring key which was already prepared by the investigator.

Final Draft

¢After correcting the errors final draft of question paper is made in accordance with the analysis given by experts

¢It is arranged in such a way that students easily read and understand the question paper.

Standardization of Achievement Test

¢Achievement test was further standardized by experimental validation of the test that included establishing reliability and validity.


Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure

¢Degree of consistency of test scores obtained by same individual when re-examined with same set of question paper under same environment


¢Test validity is the extent to which a test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.

¢Validity tells you how accurately a method measures something. If a method measures what it claims to measure, and the results closely gives the real-world values, then it can be considered valid

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